Chemical Reactions of Acids with Metals, Bases, and Metal Carbonates

What happens when hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid react with metals, bases, and metal carbonates? When hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid react with metals, bases, and metal carbonates, they form salts and water. These acids donate a proton to the base or carbonate, resulting in the formation of water and a salt. Most of these salts are soluble in water.

Chemical Reactions with Acids and Bases

Hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3) are common acids that react with metals, bases, and metal carbonates to form salts. These reactions involve the acid's hydrogen ion (proton) reacting with the base (typically a metal hydroxide or oxide) or metal carbonate, resulting in the production of water and the corresponding salt.

Examples of Reactions

When hydrochloric acid reacts with a base like sodium hydroxide (NaOH), it forms sodium chloride (NaCl) and water (H2O). Similarly, sulfuric acid reacts with copper(II) oxide (CuO) to produce copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) and water. These acids also react with metal carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3), to generate a salt, carbon dioxide (CO2), and water.

Formation of Salts

When nitric acid reacts with bases and carbonates (excluding reactions with metals), salts and water are formed. It is essential to exclude reactions between nitric acid and metals based on the specific instruction. The resulting salts from these reactions tend to be soluble in water, allowing them to dissolve and form a homogenous solution.

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